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SINUSITIS

Overview

Sinusitis refers to the inflammation of the sinus membranes due to an infection caused by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull. Following are the types of sinuses: Frontal sinuses, Maxillary sinuses, Ethmoid sinuses, Sphenoid sinuses. If the opening from a sinus cavity becomes blocked, the flow of mucus gets blocked and results in pressure buildup causing pain and inflammation.

Following are the types of sinuses:

  • Frontal sinuses
  • Maxillary sinuses
  • Ethmoid sinuses
  • Sphenoid sinuses

If the opening from a sinus cavity becomes blocked, the flow of mucus gets blocked and results in pressure buildup causing pain and inflammation.

Signs and symptoms

The most common symptom of acute sinusitis is a cold that doesn’t go away. Other symptoms are:

  • Bad breath or loss of smell
  • Cough, often worse at night
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Headache

Sore throat

Causes

Sinusitis can be caused due to following reasons:

  • Small hair in the sinuses
  • Cold and allergies
  • A deviated nasal septum
  • Smoking
  • Weakened immune system from HIV or chemotherapy

Treatment

  • Generally doctors suggest antibiotics or decongestants for several weeks. Pain killers can also be given to provide relief.
  • Antihistamines or nasal sprays are prescribed to treat the allergies that cause chronic (recurrent) sinus infections.
  • If medicines do not result in positive outcomes, surgery is done to treat chronic and severe sinusitis. During the surgery, surgeons create an extra or enlarged passageway in the wall of the sinus cavity. It allows the sinuses to get more air easily and free from infection.
  • Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) – This surgery is done to treat chronic symptoms of sinusitis.

 

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